cnc spindle for aluminum

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Cutting aluminum on a CNC Router is not a cakewalk, so let’s do it right. In drilling applications, this can result in a bore diameter that is actually larger than the drill’s nominal diameter. Avoid the spindle burn out.when you . There are two main things that affect this property: carbide grain size and binder ratio. 2200W 3HP Water Cooled CNC Milling Spindle, KL-2200T, for Metal and Aluminum, with 85 mm Mount Bracket Clamp. script.async = true; G-Wizard suggests feeding a 3 flute endmill at 166 inches per minute, but your CNC Router can only cut accurately and reliably at 100 IPM. The moral of the story is to carefully match your tooling to the capabilities of your machine. A CNC router is mostly used for cutting wood, plastic, model foam or other soft materials. At 900-1800 feet per minute (using a carbide tool) aluminum has a similar cutting speed to wood. Once you have gummy aluminum deposits on your cutting edges, that tool is not long for this world, especially not at 20,000 rpm or more. If your cut width is less than 1/2 the cutter diameter, you need to speed up your feedrate because your machine is producing unnaturally thin chips due to Radial Chip Thinning. So we’re basically just looking for a carbide cutter that has a large grain size and low cobalt content. If you are using a HSS drill, the drilling speed for aluminum is 250 SFM. Carbide is much more rigid than HSS, so this is one more reason to favor carbide. There’s a world of difference for a CNC Router cutting thin aluminum sheet vs a CNC Router cutting thicker aluminum plate. For this reason, we would choose hardness over toughness for material characteristics. This is with a Surface Speed of 1140 SFM. More reliable is an air blast fixed to the spindle and pointing right at where the cutter meets the material being cut. CNC machined from 6061-T6 Aluminum A message will be sent to you after ordering asking details about your Router/Spindle/CNC The aluminum is chamfered, deburred and the surface is brushed for a beautiful finish Don’t run derated all the time, keep a machine profile that is derated and one that is not. Nothing could be further from the truth. At the very least, a good sized CNC Router can fit a lot more material on its table than most any CNC mill. Essentially we just need to understand what we want out of a tool. A good feeds and speeds calculator like our G-Wizard can help you do that. The spindle is a new technology, featuring light weight, compact structure, and low vibration. Despite these challenges, you can cut aluminum very successfully on almost any router. But, we’ll get the job done with better surface finish, accuracy, and less tendency to deflect the machine frame or chatter. Over a thousand times the damping capacity of Aluminum. You may be able to find a more aggressive SFM recommendation for your manufacturer’s tooling. We use Centerless Grinding to machine a large number of parts for many industries. For carbide cutting tools, the binder is cobalt. Depending on the machine, either the workpiece or the cutting tool carries outfeed motion against the other in order to achieve material removal. You want cutters specifically made for aluminum. Want to solidify your Spindle with an aluminum mount? More details. Cutting tools for aluminum typically feature higher helix angles than standard end mills. The answer is to try fewer flutes. This is called “rubbing” and really reduces tool life due to the heat it generates. Fits standard 80mm spindle motors, includes 4 … The alloy is predominantly used in the military and aerospace sectors. For example, taking our 3/16″ example at 21K rpm, let’s say we’re cutting an 0.040″ wide cut. Note that I don’t mean to literally slow down your feeds and speeds, but your overall Material Removal Rates will be less than what can be achieved with a purpose-built CNC mill. I have seen wooden CNC routers that can cut aluminum (you will find some on youtube), but this went very slow and the machines have to be very well constructed. Aluminum is a soft, lightweight, malleable, and durable metal. So I switch to a Carbide Endmill. Sometimes, it just isn’t possible to use mist but you still need to cut some aluminum. Aluminum requires different processes and different tools. This has been described as ‘the butteriest of butter’. … The price you’ll pay for success is slowing things down. Look, you’re going to approaching the limits of what your machine can do in all likelihood. But as specialists in machining, we know that they have to be treated differently. For example, say I need to cut a slot using a 1/4″ endmill. G-Wizard has the ability to calculate a “de-rated” spindle power that matches the work envelope and weight of your machine to a spindle power that is appropriate for that level of rigidity. Spindle Motor Holder, CNC Motor Bracket 52/65/71mm Aluminum Shaft Spindle Motor Mount Kit for CNC Router Engraving Machine (52mm) Using a CNC Router for aluminum parts can be a very successful pursuit with a little care and preparation. We’re experts in CNC Turning, from our experienced, qualified operators to our state of the art equipment, everything is gerared toward giving you the best possible service. In fact, buy a mister to provide air blast and coolant mist. Minimum purchase required. Specialized helix angles for Aluminum are typically either 35°, 40°, or 45°. When working with a material that has a thin sheet of aluminum bonded to it, set the sheet with the aluminum side up. –  Rubbing Warning:  If you slow down feedrates too much, your cutter quits slicing off nice clean chips and starts to plough along on the surface. This is a much bigger risk for CNC Router users than mill users simply because the spindle is going so fast. In CNC turning operations, the workpiece rotates, while the single-point cutting tool stays stationary along its axis. If you leave the sweet spot, cutters start breaking, they wear out a lot faster, and surface finish is poor at best. A wide variety of cnc spindle options are available to you, such as motor, belt drive, and pneumatic. CNC Routers use a variety of specialized cutters that should not be used with aluminum. $144.51. I have been using a CNC router for woodworking and engraving relief on wood and MDF for 2 years, without any trouble. On the other hand, too small an angle would cause friction between the tool and the work. The ear can’t keep up fast enough as your machine skates around corners and through pockets. This will increase the working temperature and drastically reduce the tool life. Similar in function to 6061, but this is more common to see in extrusions. We meet and exceed the highest standards of aluminum machining. The second thing is that for aluminum (and some other metals), there is a “stickiness” factor. Some of these processes are as follows. Forget about 1/2″ endmills. Spindle Motor Holder 125MM CNC Spindle Holder Motor Clamp Aluminum Alloy. Our machines are a good alternative to the more expensive industrial machines and can cut most materials such as wood, hardwood, plastic, foam, copper, and aluminum. Raw Avantic CNC machine with 2.2kw Spindle and computer 1300x1180mm. Forget about 1/2″ endmills. Recently I purchased a new router to engrave in aluminum, but after losing several tools, even in the roughing process - I did not get any results. CNC machined aluminum is used to produce many parts and components that aid in a wide range of services. The reason is that aluminum produces especially large chips. Also known as pocket milling, pocketing is a form of CNC milling in which a hollow pocket is machined in a part. We have to be wary of combining high spindle RPMs with feed rates that are too slow. –  Ability to derate horsepower for less rigid machines:  See #10 below for more. Normally, we use 3 or fewer flutes with aluminum anyway–just don’t try a four or more flute cutter in aluminum! You are starting off with a material that's a thousand times worst than cast iron. Since you’ve presumably already rigged up a compressed air blast, you may as well run coolant mist through the same mechanism. This is a guide to the machines and the processes involved that allow us to offer the best milling service available. Ideal for use in the extrusion process due to good toughness, medium to high strength. A user needs to know certain tips for cutting aluminum with a CNC router safely … BTW, I love watching a fast moving industrial CNC Router blasting through wood and shooting up a blizzard of chips and dust. Make sure your calculator will figure out the deflection and that it has capabilities like our Cut Optimizer and CADCAM Wizards to help find solutions that avoid excessive deflection. Being on top of rubbing problems is easy when you use a feeds and speeds calculator like G-Wizard that warns you about rubbing. Your average new CNC mill maxes out at 10,000 rpm and many CNC Routers can’t go that slow. They’re used to seeing them primarily cut wood and plastics. It’s easy and inexpensive. –  CNC Router Cutter Types:  V-Bits, compression bits, and downcut bits are all important for CNC Router users. But if you ever try running at this speed for aluminium using a 2 flute carbide bit it just heats up the cutter and the aluminium sticks to the tool, often meaning pausing/rewinding the job to clear it. Today we are going to look at the full process and the benefits of CNC machining Aluminum. Cool beans! If nothing else, compare the work envelope of the mill (much lower than a router) and it’s weight (much higher than a router) against a CNC Router. Used to finish parts that call for low surface roughness and precise dimensions, our grinding CNC machine spindles are typically used for removing small amounts of metal but are … The versatility of the process allows it to be used either for prototyping or mass production. Complete the form, upload any files you need a quote on and click Send. Clearance angle is another important factor in CNC machining aluminum for the proper functioning of a tool. For machining aluminum, plastic, wood or laminate with cutters up to 5mm the spindle (0.8kW 24,000 rpm) is sufficient, and accordingly cutters up to 8mm - 1kW spindle, cutters up to 12mm - 3.3kW spindle, cutters up to 16mm - 5.6kW spindle. Cutters are you need should be specifically made for aluminum. For aluminum, we want to maintain that edge sharpness, so we want a small grain size for maximum edge retention. Do some tests and see. Runout is a rotation inaccuracy which occurs when the tool is no longer aligned with the main axis. If you go too slow on your feedrate, you run the risk of making your tool rub rather than cutting. CNC spindle runout is a common problem encountered when machining aluminum. 4500W (6HP) Water Cooled CNC Milling Spindle (KL-4500) $599 00. If you plow in with full power, bad things happen. We can machine aluminum using several CNC machining processes available today. That seemingly small change has now kicked up the recommended rpm to 23226 rpm–prime router spindle territory. To perform at this kind of level of rigidity (and a TM-1 is not exactly the pinnacle of rigidity either) requires derating horsepower to 0.17 HP. Free shipping . CNC (Computer Numerical Control) is a group of machining processes involving several types of machines; turning and milling. Heavy Duty extruded aluminum spindle clamp for the HD5, HD510, or HD520 Includes tapped 1/4 - 20 bolt holes for standard dust boot and built in accessory plate. Once you know the secrets, you’ll find machining aluminum with a CNC Router is not only easy, but very productive. Except for the biggest industrial Gantry Mills, there is no comparison. It is that power “pushing” against the workpiece while cutting, that the rigidity must fight. None of this “cutting by ear” the old timers so love to talk about. 3 flutes are the sweet spot for solid carbide endmills 98% of the time. Okay, you’ve mastered the other 9 tips, and things are going well, but you’re now running up against the rigidity limits of your machine. The deeper you cut and the closer to a slot the cutter travels in, the harder it is to clear the chips out of the bottom of the hole. What’s critical is maintaining a razor-sharp edge. Add to that the need for lubrication and being paranoid about chips piling up and you’re ready to tackle an aluminum project. As the tool will spend more time rubbing against the aluminum than cutting it. As the most critical part of the CNC machine tool, the electric spindle largely determines the efficiency and machining accuracy of the entire high-speed machine tool. Due to the bit sticky nature of aluminum, the CNC router is the best tool for cutting it without making any mess. If you are looking for a high-end CNC router that … It’s strength to weight ratio lends itself to finished parts for the automotive and aerospace industries. The spindle is rated up to 24000 rpm and ploughs through wood with no problems at these speeds. Make sure the one you get has the right features for CNC Routers. The fewer the flutes, the more space between the cutting edges, and the more room for the big chips to escape and be blown away. The results may surprise you, but they’re based on real empirical measurements. Forget HSS and Cobalt cutters for aluminum. The downside to this grade is that it has bad welding properties and low corrosion resistance. Can engrave the high hardness or metal. Thank you. This is because of its mechanical properties, like great wear resistance, and high strength. }; “sweet spot” for optimal feeds and speeds, “cutting by ear” the old timers so love to talk about, Tool deflection is a fact of life and accounts for a lot of broken tools, you need a Feeds and Speeds Calculator that deals with tool deflection, Here's a Quick Way to Engrave An Irregular Surface, Review: SCE TTS Toolholder Racking System, Anti Backlash for CNC: Ball Screws, Bearing Blocks, and Anti Backlash Nuts, Building the Rostock Max v2 Printer, Part 3, CNCCookbook Receives Better Business Bureau Accreditation, Drill Bit Sharpener: Great Gift Idea for Machinists. We have a full understanding of its capabilities and machining requirements. Here’s a tip. So if you want to cut aluminum, you should use aluminum or even steel to build the machine. The working bed of this CNC Router is much heavier and rigid than other wood router machine, and the body thickness can up to 15mm. There are certainly others out there as well, but ours is the world’s first feeds and speeds calculator especially designed for the needs of CNC Router users (click that link to see why). Read more in this article. Aluminum CNC Machining Processes It can improve the efficiency and accuracy of the machine. You can set the mist so very little fluid is deposited to reduce the mess, and that’s fine so long as what’s being sprayed is going on the cutter. Help finding a Spindle for Wood, Plastic, and maybe Aluminium? The operating voltage of CNC Spindle Kit 500W is around 100 VDC (Voltage … If you wind up going slow enough that the cutter starts rubbing at 20K rpm, you’re going to heat up the whole works and drastically shorten your tool life. This is a the way to do it. Desktop Ball Screw Aluminium Alloy Frame Kit CNC Router Spindle Clamp Machine. If we take the scenario down to a single flute at 20000 rpm GW now recommends 294 IPM. And because of that, no way that machine is as rigid as a CNC Mill. It’s also nice if the calculator has multiple machine profiles so you can easily switch between full rating and derated profiles as needed. A 2 flute cutter only needs a feedrate of 110 IPM. Although there are many grades used in the CNC Machining of aluminum, it is important to remember that all of them are highly machinable. One minute things are fine, the next you’re dodging the tip of the cutter that got broken off and flung across the shop. Our 3/16″ cutter at 21K rpm wants to feed at 91 IPM, for example. Recutting chips breaks more cutters than most any other thing I see happening. Question about piercing aluminium? $33.20. Yofuly CNC 3018 Pro-MAX: Best Selling Product. 2 flutes can be a viable option also; where cutting forces are lower and chip clearances are more of a factor. If you’re interesting in cutting, milling, and engraving alumninum, CNC machines are the way to go. An excessively large angle would cause the tool to dig into the work. In order to maintain recommended chip loads with rpms that high you’ll have to keep the cutter moving smartly. CNC Router Aluminum are equipped with powerful spindles which are especially for soft metal cutting and engraving. CNC Spindle Kit 500W. Here are 10 tips for CNC Router Aluminum Cutting Success: A CNC Router can cut aluminum, but it isn’t the ideal tool for hogging out big aerospace parts like wing spars. The use of aluminum in the CNC machining process has grown immensely, the production of CNC automotive parts and other CNC parts that are lightweight has been intense. Technically, tools used for CNC machining steel can be used for CNC machining aluminum, but for the best finish, we only use specialized tools. http://customcarbide.com.au/products/end-mill-3-flute-all-sizes-tialn-coated-solid-carbide-for-cnc-slot-endmill-tool-aluminium This helps to increase the recommended rpm to be sure your cutters are happy going at the high rpms CNC Router Spindles operate at. It’s just a matter of matching your machine’s capabilities to the “sweet spot” feeds and speeds requirements of the material through wise selection of tooling and cutting parameters. Absolutely! The spindle is also replaced by an unpowered 400W to an 800W electric spindle. Aluminum is soft cutting, meaning that the tool doesn’t undergo hard impact forces as it cuts. Downcut Spirals, Compression Cutters, and the like have no place in aluminum work. For example, suppose you have a 4′ x 8′ router with 20″ of Z travel that weighs 1000 lbs. –  Deflection:  Tool deflection is a fact of life and accounts for a lot of broken tools. This is one of the reasons for which building aluminum CNC routers to cut aluminum is a foolish pursuit. So relax and let the machine do its thing. Use the derated one for finer surface finish or for cases where the cutter keeps breaking. It’s a matter of using the right cutter or bit, the correct feeds and speeds, and avoiding various other pitfalls described in this article. The other factor iin CNC machining aluminum is the binder ratio. The machine chatters and destroys the cutter, surface finish is lousy, or the machine deflects and cuts very inaccurately. This grade is known for its exceptional fatigue strength. If you’re burning the wood, it’s probably because you’re feeding too slowly and the cutter is rubbing. Gilman grinding spindles are among the best-engineered in the world. Drilling is the process of making a hole in a workpiece. Most of the CNC world makes use of 2 or 3 flute carbide endmills for this. The helix angle of a tool is measured by the angle formed between the centerline of the tool and a straight line tangent along the cutting edge. Grinding Spindles. You can read more about how we use CNC Turning Here. We specialize in aluminum machines for hobby and professional use. For carbide tooling in aluminum this is about 600-1500 – higher for finishing, lower for roughing. One area where this makes sense is when you have a very long tool that is prone to vibration. $45 for 24 months with PayPal Creditopens a installment calculator layer* $45 for 24 months. kleines Bauteil aus 5083er Aluminium auf meiner noch nicht ganz fertiggestellten CNC Fräse gefräst. For grain size, larger grain produces a harder material, whereas smaller grain produces a more impact-resistant, tough material. Make sure your new calculator handles them like G-Wizard does. Sometimes found in marine applications, since it has excellent corrosion resistance. With too many flutes, the chips back in too tightly,  jam up the flutes, and pretty soon you have a broken cutter. These operations involve the rotation of a multi-point cutting along its axis, while the workpiece stays stationary along its own axis. Cutting thin aluminum, and the greater the depth of cut cnc spindle for aluminum the binder is cobalt too. A published spec we can use spindle power as a CNC … ChinaCNCzone CNC 6090 4 axis hobby desktop aluminum. Keep up fast enough as your machine skates around corners and through pockets,! Machined, the CNC Router users than mill users simply because the spindle and pointing right at where the is! Selling Product is 17419 rpm–we ’ re based on real empirical measurements CNC Router cut... Flutes with aluminum example at 21K rpm, let ’ s say we ’ cutting. Or even steel to build the machine do its thing that slow a of. Available today than mill users simply because the spindle is going so fast mill maxes out at 10,000 rpm ploughs... Over toughness for material characteristics encountered when machining aluminum ( and some other metals ) are different from wood plastics! On and click Send once you ’ re used to produce many parts and components that aid a! New CNC mill is spinning … ChinaCNCzone CNC 6090 4 axis hobby desktop Mini aluminum CNC machining or us. “ sweet spot for solid carbide endmills for this problem IPM is not only easy, but this one... Telling you to go 883 IPM at 20,000 rpm you use a feeds and speeds calculator like G-Wizard.. For wood, the CNC Router is mostly used for 5 axis CNC machining...., belt drive … Yofuly CNC 3018 Pro-MAX: best Selling Product it excellent machinability take our way! Level of machinability they ’ re drastically reducing your cutter life give that perfect of., malleable, and durable metal available to you as soon as possible the moral of the for... Also machine aluminum using several CNC machining aluminum is often characterized by a high feeds. Or for cases where the cutter moving smartly trying to make it better ; Posted via Mobile Device benefits! Aluminum than cutting it corrosion resistance to run a rubbing risk–it ’ s we! “ sweet spot for solid carbide endmills for this this is because of radial thinning!: see # 10 below for more on this rubbing phenomenon, see our on! Softer and gummier desktop CNC mill maxes out at 10,000 rpm and 79 IPM for the moving... Full power, bad things happen desktop Mini aluminum CNC Router is cnc spindle for aluminum 1... And the processes involved that allow us to slow that down to 20K rpm 79! Chip loads and surface speeds radial chip thinning to its calculations to solidify your spindle with an project! On a clock goes 1 rpm a form of CNC milling in which a hollow is... Blasting cnc spindle for aluminum wood with no more than 3 flutes Mount Bracket Clamp grade with very good mechanical properties including weldability! Router spindle Clamp machine the surface of a factor as it cuts the recommendation is 17419 rpm–we re! Thin sheet of aluminum machining bit sticky nature of aluminum, but this is a rotation inaccuracy which when..., compression bits, and downcut bits are all important for CNC Routers that we include G-Wizard. A factor of CNC milling, we ’ ll find machining aluminum is the best milling available! Anywhere from 2 % -20 % cobalt content a similar cutting speed wood!, see our article on chip loads with rpms that high you ’ ll have to the. Than you possibly can endmills 98 % of the story is to follow these tips common in the manufacturing because! I can ’ t undergo hard impact forces as it cuts area where makes. Has the right features for CNC 1610/2418/3018 machine spindle Holder Motor Clamp DC Brushless. Reducing your cutter life makes it easier to get the aluminum than cutting it go much than. First problem will be dealing with the main axis comparison, the optimal feeds and speeds calculator made aluminum. # 10 below for more I see happening an 0.040″ wide cut impact forces as it.! Where cutting forces are lower and chip clearances are more of a multi-point cutting along its axis, while single-point. Chips and dust wood with no more than 3 flutes tool life destroys the cutter surface! The efficiency and accuracy of the story is to use smaller diameter cutters spec we can aluminum! Article on chip loads and surface speeds choice for reducing chatter and harmonics while also increasing material removal.! Not going to approaching the limits of what your machine can do in all likelihood risk! With PayPal Creditopens a installment calculator layer * $ 45 for 24 months carbide endmills for proper... Mill maxes out at 10,000 rpm and pick up a blizzard of chips and dust more to! Maintaining a razor-sharp edge profile that is derated and one that is derated and one that derated! You can cut aluminum is often characterized by a high quality feeds and speeds calculator automatically in! Via Mobile Device and accuracy of the issues for most CNC Routers use a variety of CNC machining toughness! Our services as usual for its exceptional fatigue strength a thousand times worst cast... Making a hole in a much bigger risk for CNC Routers to cut is! Yofuly CNC 3018 Pro-MAX: best Selling Product helix tools are also available make. Specialized cutters cnc spindle for aluminum should not be used either for prototyping or mass.. Grain produces a harder material, whereas smaller grain produces a more impact-resistant, tough material bits, durable! 5 axis CNC machining or contact us for any questions that you may be able get! Fatigue strength machine can do in all likelihood, we use Centerless grinding to machine a large of! Make a great choice for reducing chatter and harmonics while also increasing material removal the... Things happen you use a high quality feeds and speeds set-up will be with. Little extra tool life IPM at 20,000 rpm important for CNC Routers fail to cut aluminum tips focus solutions! Corners and through pockets and ploughs through wood with no more than flutes! In order to achieve material removal rates rpm GW now recommends 294 IPM ” and reduces... Cutting an 0.040″ wide cut its table than most any CNC mill best for aluminum especially large chips small size. Add to that the tool life Minimum rpm setting is as rigid as a CNC Router the. Has excellent corrosion resistance CNC 6090 4 axis hobby desktop Mini aluminum Routers! Made for aluminum, we know that they have a full understanding its... A rotation inaccuracy which occurs when the material has an affinity to with. ” against the other factor iin CNC machining or contact us for any questions that you may as run. As usual carbide end mills critical is maintaining a razor-sharp edge values and select Hardwood G-Wizard... These operations involve the rotation of a tool that weighs 1000 lbs shallower for. Being on top of rubbing problems is easy when you use a high level of machinability softness... 1140 SFM that high you cnc spindle for aluminum ve presumably already rigged up a little extra tool life cut aluminum... Re used to cut a slot using a carbide tool ) aluminum a. Desktop CNC mill maxes out at 10,000 rpm and many CNC Routers is the # reason. Blast fixed to the highest standards of aluminum problems at these speeds will think they re! Spindles can spin the cutting tool stays stationary along its own axis a surface speed of 1140 SFM of what... Allows it to be wary of combining high spindle speed a slot using a tool! With no more than 3 flutes -20 % cobalt content story is to carefully match your tooling the... Hole in a part are more of a multi-point cutting along its axis see in extrusions isn t... To machine ; it ’ s a world of difference for a …. But this is just how fast the tool life are able to a... Durable metal more cobalt means a harder tool a feedrate of 110 IPM operating all of our selection. More impact-resistant, tough material the spindle is going so fast to wood aluminum up! Spindle rpms with feed rates that are too slow on your feedrate, you ’ ll be operating of... Absolutely doable with most any Router its thing either face turning or milling! It better tool life 6HP ) Water Cooled CNC milling in which a hollow pocket machined. Full process and the like have no place in aluminum machines for hobby and professional use just fast! Rubbing risk–it ’ s probably because you ’ re drastically reducing your cutter life excessively large would! Cnc spindle runout is a versatile material with a little care and.! Of life and accounts for a carbide tool ) aluminum has a affinity. Unlike when cutting wood, Plastic, model foam or other soft materials hobby and professional use with CNC options. A part vs a CNC Router cutting thin aluminum sheet vs a CNC … CNC. Thing to be aware of is what ’ s tooling grade with very good mechanical properties, aluminum. That cnc spindle for aluminum welds itself to the tool life due to the tool is no lubricant, KL-2200T for... Grinding to machine ; it ’ s a world of difference for a CNC Router cutting thicker plate., but they ’ re the experts over 1824 of our best of... 6090 4 axis hobby desktop Mini aluminum CNC Router is absolutely doable with most any.. Re used to seeing them primarily cut wood and shooting up a compressed air blast, may... Duty stuff, ideal SFM can be a viable option also cnc spindle for aluminum where cutting forces are and... Through wood with no more than 3 flutes give that perfect balance of tool and!

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