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Except … Chestnut tree leaves are simple and ovate, and the flowers bloom in spring and summer. Horse chestnut and buckeyes have a shiny pod with fewer, bumpy spikes. It's important to realize, though, that Chinese chestnut trees vary considerably in blight resistance. In fall the leaves turn yellow/copper. Chestnuts produce a better crop when subjected to chill temperatures during the dormant period. Chestnut trees (Castanea) are deciduous trees in the beech family (Fagaceae). Chinese Chestnut Castanea mollissima The Chinese Chestnut is a medium sized tree that produces a sweet tasting chestnut for consumption. Chinese chestnut trees range in resistance to chestnut blight from very susceptible (as susceptible as American chestnut trees) to very resistant. As the American chestnut struggles with disease, the blight-resistant Chinese chestnut is quick gaining popularity. The scientific name of the nut is Castanea mollissima. Chinese chestnut Chinese chestnut is resistant to chestnut blight which has almost wiped out the American chestnut. It grows close to sea level in the north of its range, and at altitudes of up to 2,800 m in the south of the range. Long-stalked, deciduous, palmate green leaves … Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. Frosts and snowfalls are beneficial rather than harmful to the trees. The Chinese chestnut is used as a substitute for the American chestnut, becoming a shade tree for large landscapes. Wildlife: Deer, turkey, squirrels and many other wildlife enjoy eating chinese chestnuts. Smooth and chestnut-brown in color when young, later shallowly fissured into flat ridges. We purchased Chinese Chestnut trees from Miller's Nursury approximately 6 - 10 years ago. This is a deciduous tree, so it loses the leaves in the winter, but makes up for it with a striking bare silhouette. [1], It is a deciduous tree growing to 20 m tall with a broad crown. Sunscald – One of the chestnut tree problems that can look like blight is called sunscald. When cultivated close to other species of chestnut (including Japanese chestnut, C. crenata; American chestnut, C. dentata; and sweet chestnut, C. sativa), Chinese chestnut readily cross-pollinates with them to form hybrids. The fruit is a densely spiny cupule 4–8 cm diameter, containing two or three glossy brown nuts; these are 2–3 cm diameter on wild trees. It is a medium sized, low-branched, deciduous tree that typically grows 40’ (less frequently to 60’) tall with an open rounded crown. Here are all three types of leaves next to each other. The Chinese chestnut tree has brown, strongly ridged and furrowed bark. It is grown as … The tree is hard to transplant, perhaps due to a coarse root system. Besides that, the Dandong chestnut (belonging to the Japanese chestnut – Castanea crenata) is a major cultivar in Liaoning Province. The chestnut tree produces clusters of edible nuts. The sweet-tasting nuts are often roasted for holiday eating and have been made famous in turkey stuffing recipes across the country. Noteworthy Characteristics Castanea mollissima, commonly called Chinese chestnut, is native to China and possibly Korea. The scientific name mollissima derives from the softly downy shoots and young leaves. Chinese Chestnut Burs: A sparse mass of short, thick spines Spines are 1 to 2 cm long, 1 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur American Leaf (left): Leaf is long in relation to its width Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle at the end of each tooth curves inward Base of leaf blade tapers sharply Leaf is very thin and papery Chinese Leaf (right): The Chinese Chestnut is a beautiful and ornamental large shade tree to plant in your lawn, or with other trees. The pod of the American chestnut has a thicker growth of hairlike spikes on the outside. Of the 6-8 trees we purchased - three have survived and two finally developed burrs this year. In the provinces of Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, and Zhejiang, and also to Taiwan and Korea. European chestnut (Castanea sativa) is also susceptible to these chestnut diseases, but Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant. Castanea mollissima (Chinese Chestnut) is a medium sized deciduous tree with a short trunk and an open rounded crown adorned with wide-spreading branches. Burs are at the end of the branch with up to 3 nuts per bur. (We have also purchased replacement Chinese Chestnut trees from you this spring to replace what we have lost). The Chinese chestnut tree grows alternating, oblong leaves that have sharp, pointed teeth around the edges. Mature leaves are light green and paper-thin, and droop down from the twigs. [3], Chinese chestnuts have evolved over a long period of time in coexistence with the bark fungal disease chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica, formerly Endothia parasitica), and have evolved a very successful resistance to the blight, probably more so than any other species of chestnut, so that, although it is not immune, it typically sustains no more than minor damage when infected. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Sweet Chestnut. It usually branches close to the ground making it a good candidate for a specimen or as a tree to climb. According to the American Chestnut Foundation, there are several ways in which to identify whether a tree is an American chestnut or a Chinese chestnut, although this does begin to prove more difficult with later generation hybrids, as they more closely resemble true Americans. The leaf is spade shaped, with a rounded bottom and is characteristically wider in the other third of the leaf. They can usually be recognized by their thick, leathery leaves that are densely hairy on the lower surface. List of various diseases cured by Sweet Chestnut. How Sweet Chestnut is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Most of established Chestnuts are Chinese, and they have a very distinctive apple tree shape, rounded with multi-stemmed trunk (see next column). Leaves: American chestnut leaves are elongated with prominent teeth Chinese chestnut leaves are oval shaped with small teeth Nuts: American chestnuts are small, between 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter, with point tips and hair over 1/3 t… Many cultivars are very cold tolerant. This non-native species produces spikes of creamy white flowers in summer. Naturally an understory tree[citation needed], Chinese chestnut has been cultivated in East Asia for millennia and its exact original range cannot be determined. 3. The leaves are dark green with a toothed margin and 3-5″ long. Chinese chestnut is an exotic species that is somewhat resistent to the chestnut blight that has destroyed New England's native chestnut, Castanea dentata. The edible nuts develop in sharp, spiny husks. Some individuals are quite susceptible while others are essentially immune to the disease. It has interesting scented flowers in late spring, burr-like fruits containing two or three large edible chestnuts, and beautiful golden-yellow fall leaves. [4] Japanese chestnut is also comparatively resistant to blight, with European chestnut somewhat less so. Chinese chestnut reaches a height and spread of about 40 feet in a sunny, open exposure and a well-drained soil. Chestnuts grow on the trees inside spikey burs, each about an inch (2.5 cm.) This tree is very blight resistant, with a low branching, wide spreading growth habit. It is glossy and heavier than American leaves. Within 30 years, there were very few left in their native range. Chinese chestnut trees (Castanea mollissima) are medium tall trees with spreading branches. In Vietnam, Chinese chestnut (Vietnamese language: hạt dẻ, Tày language: mác lịch) which are grown in Trùng Khánh district, Cao Bằng province have highest quality with 3.3-5.4% glucose, 43.36- 46.47% glucid, 1.16 – 2% lipid, 3.12 – 3.62% protein analyzed by Vietnam National Vegetable and Fruit Researching Institution in 1999. The leaves are glossy and dark green. To me the leaves … For the other similarly named chestnut species, see, Dr. Greg Miller, Empire Chestnut Company, FAQ, http://www.empirechestnut.com/faqpests.htm, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Castanea_mollissima&oldid=948724574, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 April 2020, at 18:03. Chinese chestnut, Chinese hairy chestnut, châtaignier de Chine, chinesische Kastanie, shinaguri, Rōmaji castaño chino are common names of Chinese chestnut. Chinese chestnut has a pleasingly round crown and is often selected as a hardy street tree. The Chinese Chestnut Tree is eye-catching and stands on its own. Chinese chestnut trees grow leaves with fine, fuzzy hairs on the lower surface. TACF National Office 50 North Merrimon Avenue, Suite 115, Asheville, NC 28804, Phone: 828-281-0047 Fax: 828-253-5373 chestnut@acf.org. [1][2], When cultivated close to other species of chestnut (including Japanese chestnut, C. crenata; American chestnut, C. dentata; and sweet chestnut, C. sativa), Chinese chestnut readily cross-pollinates with them to form hybrids. American Leaf (left): Leaf is long in relation to its width Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle at the end of each tooth curves inward Base of leaf blade tapers sharply Leaf is very thin and papery, Chinese Leaf (right): Leaf is oval-shaped Teeth are smaller Base of leaf blade is rounded Leaf is thick and waxy-feeling, American Leaf (left): Elongated leaf Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle on teeth curves inward Blade tapers sharply to meet stem at base of leaf blade Light green underside on leaves exposed to the sun, Chinese Leaf (right): Oval-shaped leaf Small teeth on edge Base of leaf blade rounded Underside of sun leaves look whitish because of many hairs, Pointed buds that angle away from the stem Stems smooth and hairless Stem color reddish brown to dark green Small but numerous lenticels on stem, Rounded buds that hug the stem Hairy stems and hairy leaf veins Stem color tan to pea-green Large lenticels (bumps) on stem, Slender Angle sharply out from stem Usually fall off in June, Broad Cover the buds Remain on the stem through September, American Chestnut Burs: A dense mass of long, slender spines Spines are 2 to 3 cm long, 0.5 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur, Chinese Chestnut Burs: A sparse mass of short, thick spines Spines are 1 to 2 cm long, 1 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur, American Chestnuts: Nuts are relatively small, 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter Tips of American chestnuts are pointed Nuts are hairy over 1/3 to 2/3 of length from pointed end Vascular bundles in a sunburst pattern on hilum end 2 to 3 nuts in each bur, Chinese Chestnuts: Nuts are relatively large, 3/4 to 2 inches in diameter Tips of Chinese chestnuts are rounded Only the tips of the nuts are hairy Vascular bundles in a diffuse pattern on hilum end 2 to 3 nuts in each bur. The leaves of chestnut trees are lanceolate and ovate. formosana Hayata; C. sativa var. But this is more than a nut tree. in diameter. Horse chestnut leaves are much larger than buckeyes or American chestnuts. It is native to forests, thickets, slopes, ravines and roadsides in northern China. pendula X. Y. Zhou & Z. D. Zhou; C. sativa Miller var. An active program has been pursued in North America to cross-breed the Chinese and American chestnuts to try to maximize various desirable traits of the American chestnut, such as larger stature, larger leaf size, larger nut size, and greater nut sweetness, while also isolating and carrying the blight resistance from the Chinese chestnut.[5]. Learn how to identify American chestnuts and send us a sample to support our research. Chinese Leaf (right): Oval-shaped leaf Small teeth on edge Base of leaf blade rounded Underside of sun leaves look whitish because of many hairs ... Chinese Chestnut Burs: A sparse mass of short, thick spines Spines are 1 to 2 cm long, 1 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur . The leaves are alternate, simple, 10–22 cm long and 4.5–8 cm broad, with a toothed margin. Subtle but radiant fall leaves follow in autumn to accompany the sweet chestnuts. Castanea mollissima (Chinese: 板栗; pinyin: bǎnlì), also known as the Chinese chestnut, is a member of the family Fagaceae, and a species of chestnut native to China, Taiwan, and Korea. Notice the leaf shape and color is hard to distinguish for the F1 hybrid. In the 1890s, Chinese and Japanese chestnuts were imported to the United States with the intention of utilizing them as orchard trees due to their small, compact size compared to the towering American chestnut. Buckeye trees have fans of five leaves while American and horse chestnut leaves are spans of six or seven. Green leaves turn to yellow, gold and brown in autumn. Flowers of the Chinese Chestnut are particularly foul smelling, and reportedly can spoil a late-spring barbecue. Chinese chestnut trees grow leaves with fine, fuzzy hairs on the lower surface. yunnanensis Franchet.[1]. With the presence of the fungus across both Asia and North America, the American chestnut is no longer planted and usually never seen as a stately specimen tree. Chestnut blight, plant disease caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly known as Endothia parasitica).Accidentally imported from Asia, the disease was first observed in 1904 in the New York Zoological Gardens.By 1925 it had decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) population in an area extending over 1,600 km (1,000 miles) north, south, and west of its entry point. Chinese Chestnut. The species prefers full sun and acidic, loamy soil, and has a medium growth rate. The Chinese Chestnut tree nuts are large and sweet, though not as sweet as an American Chestnut. In the fall, neighbors will slow down to check out the shining yellow and gold leaves. It is a blight-resistant tree that is rapidly gaining popularity across the globe by virtue of its highly useful features. SA is Southern American Pure Chestnut, C is Chinese, and F1 is a first generation hybrid between the American and Chinese Chestnut. Following devastation of the American Chestnut by the chestnut blight, the Chinese Chestnut has been used as a substitute for our native tree. Chinese is gray-brown to brown, rapidly becoming furrowed, but without distinguishable patterns. [8] The nuts also provide a significant food source for wildlife. Castanea Castanea. Its medium to dark green, oblong, linear leaves are 3 to 6 inches long. The Chinese Chestnut belongs to the Fagaceae family and is a species found in China, Taiwan and Korea. However, it is valuable in difficult, urban locations where a shade tree is needed to grow in a dr… The tree produces delicious and edible nuts called chestnuts or Chinese chestnuts. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is a coarse textured tree of the Fagaceae family native to China, Korea and Taiwan. Asian chestnuts include Castanea mollissima (Chinese chestnut), Castanea henryi (Chinese chinkapin, also called Henry's chestnut – China), Castanea seguinii (also called Seguin's chestnut – China) and Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut, Korean chestnut). The disease was first noticed on a tree in the Brooklyn Zoo in 1904 and quickly spread all out of control, ravaging American chestnuts. Aesculus chinensis, commonly called Chinese horse chestnut or Chinese buckeye, is a rounded deciduous tree that typically grows to 30-40' (less frequently to 70') tall. The Chinese Chestnut is a wonderful large shade tree that is often planted alone for the beauty and shade it provides. Fragrant, creamy white and yellow-hued blooms cover the tree for a brief time in late spring. Castanea mollissima (Chinese chestnut) Chinese chestnut trees range in resistance to chestnut blight from very susceptible (as susceptible as American chestnut trees) to … The flowers are produced in catkins 4–20 cm long, with the female flowers at the base of the catkin and males on the rest. [6] Some cultivars, such as 'Kuling', 'Meiling', and 'Nanking', have large nuts up to 4 cm diameter. [1][2], Synonyms: Castanea bungeana Blume; C. duclouxii Dode; C. fargesii Dode; C. formosana (Hayata) Hayata; C. hupehensis Dode; C. mollissima var. The results unfortunately were disastrous as the imported Asian species introduced blight to which C. dentata lacked any resistance. Chestnut trees are of moderate growth rate (for the Chinese chestnut tree) to fast-growing for American and European species. It is hardy from zone 4, and resistant to heat and humidity. The Chinese species is not used as a residential or street tree because of the smell of the flowers and the fruit, nut and leaf litter shed annually. American Nut —— Chinese Nut Its flowers are pungent, and its nuts quite sweet. American Chestnut Tree (Castanea dentate) American chestnut trees are large deciduous trees that … The nuts are edible, and the tree is widely cultivated in eastern Asia; over 300 cultivars have been selected for nut production, subdivided into five major regional groups: Northern, Yangtze River Valley, Sichuan and Guizhou, Southern, and Southwestern. mollissima (Blume) Pampanini; C. vulgaris Lamarck var. The four major species of chestnut trees are the American chestnuts, European chestnuts, Japanese chestnuts and Chinese chestnuts. It got introduced in 1853 and 1903. The nuts are sweet, and considered by some to have the best taste of any chestnut,[7] though others state they are not as good as the American chestnut. It is caused by sun reflecting off of snow in winter and heating the bark on the south side of the tree.

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